Kidney Disease

Kidney diseases encompass a broad range of maladies that affect the kidneys - two bean-shaped organs responsible for filtering waste and excess fluids from your blood. Kidney diseases can range from mild infections to severe conditions that can lead to kidney failure if left untreated.

The kidneys play a pivotal role in maintaining overall health by regulating blood pressure, producing red blood cells, and keeping bones healthy, among other functions. Ignoring kidney health can lead to life-threatening complications, such as cardiovascular diseases or complete kidney failure.

At Grand Forks Clinic, we pride ourselves on our comprehensive approach to kidney care. Under the guidance of our founder, Dr. Khaled Rabadi, our seasoned team of nephrologists, nurses, and support staff are well equipped with the latest technology and medical advancements to diagnose, treat, and manage a host of kidney diseases.

Chronic Kidney Disease

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a long-term condition where the kidneys don't work as well as they should. It's a progressive disease, which means it gets worse over time and can eventually lead to kidney failure.

CKD often goes unnoticed in the early stages due to its subtle symptoms. However, as the disease progresses, symptoms like fatigue, swollen ankles, blood in urine, and frequent urination can occur. Conditions like diabetes, hypertension, and recurrent kidney infections can cause CKD.

While CKD can't be cured, appropriate treatment can slow its progression. At Grand Forks Clinic, we offer a wide range of treatment methods, including medication, lifestyle changes, and support for kidney transplants for severe cases. 

Regular follow-ups are crucial to monitor kidney function and adjust treatments as necessary.

Hypertension (Elevated BP)

Hypertension, commonly known as high blood pressure, is a medical condition where the force of blood against the artery walls is consistently too high. It's a serious condition that can lead to heart disease and stroke.

Hypertension is both a cause and a complication of kidney disease. Elevated blood pressure can damage the kidneys over time, and conversely, kidney disease can cause high blood pressure due to the kidneys' role in regulating blood pressure.

At Grand Forks Clinic, we provide a holistic approach to managing hypertension, including lifestyle changes, medication, and monitoring of kidney health. Regular check-ups are essential to keep blood pressure levels in check and prevent further kidney damage.

Anemia Management

Anemia, a condition characterized by a deficiency of red blood cells, can be a common complication of kidney disease. This is because healthy kidneys produce a hormone called erythropoietin (EPO), which stimulates the bone marrow to produce red blood cells. 

With kidney disease, the production of EPO is reduced, leading to anemia. Managing anemia in kidney disease involves treating the underlying kidney disease, supplementing iron, and in some cases, administering injections of synthetic EPO. 

At Grand Forks Clinic, we devise individualized anemia management plans to help our patients maintain their quality of life while managing their kidney condition.

Kidney Stones

Kidney stones are hard deposits of minerals and salts that form inside your kidneys. They originate in your kidneys but can affect any part of your urinary tract. 

Kidney stones are often as small as grains of sand. They pass out of the body in urine without causing discomfort. However, the stones can be larger and cause intense pain.

Kidney stones form when your urine contains more crystal-forming substances than the fluid in your urine can dilute. The most common types of kidney stones are calcium stones, followed by struvite stones, uric acid stones, and cystine stones. Symptoms include severe pain in the side and back, pain during urination, pink, red, or brown urine, and the constant need to urinate.

Treatment for kidney stones varies depending on the size and type of the stone and whether they block the urinary tract. 

Treatment options range from pain management and drinking plenty of water to medical procedures, such as using sound waves to break up stones or surgical removal. 

Preventive measures include drinking water throughout the day, eating fewer oxalate-rich foods, and choosing a diet low in salt and animal protein.

Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD)

Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of numerous cysts in the kidneys. The cysts, which are filled with fluid, can markedly enlarge the kidneys while replacing much of their normal structure, resulting in chronic kidney disease (CKD).

PKD symptoms can include: 

  • High blood pressure
  • Back or side pain
  • Fullness in the abdomen
  • Blood in urine
  • Kidney stones
  • Frequent urination

The disease is typically inherited, with two main types: autosomal dominant PKD and autosomal recessive PKD.

Autosomal Dominant PKD: This type of PKD is caused by a specific genetic mutation that is inherited from one parent. If a person inherits the mutated gene from either parent, they will develop autosomal dominant PKD. The chance of inheriting this form of PKD is 50% if one parent has the mutated gene.

Autosomal Recessive PKD: This type of PKD is caused by a different genetic mutation that involves inheriting two copies of the mutated gene, one from each parent. If both parents carry the mutated gene, there is a 25% chance that their child will develop autosomal recessive PKD.

In both types, the disease affects the kidneys, causing the formation of fluid-filled cysts within the kidneys. These cysts can grow in size over time, leading to the enlargement of the kidneys and potentially causing various symptoms and complications. The severity and progression of the disease can vary among individuals.

It is important to note that while the disease is typically inherited, sporadic cases can also occur where there is no family history of PKD. Genetic testing and consultation with a healthcare professional can provide more specific information and guidance for individuals and families affected by PKD.

Treatment for PKD aims to manage symptoms and prevent complications. This can include medications to control high blood pressure, pain relief drugs, antibiotics for urinary tract infections (UTIs), a low-sodium diet, and diuretics. In severe cases, dialysis or kidney transplants may be required.

Electrolyte Imbalance

The kidneys play a crucial role in maintaining electrolyte balance in the body. They do this by filtering out excess electrolytes and water from the blood and excreting them in the urine. However, when the kidneys are damaged, they are less able to keep electrolytes in balance. This can lead to conditions like hyperkalemia (high potassium levels) and hyponatremia (low sodium levels).

Treatment of electrolyte imbalance involves treating the underlying kidney disease and maintaining a balanced diet. Medications may also be prescribed to help maintain electrolyte balance.

Bone Disease and Osteoporosis

Chronic kidney disease and bone health are closely linked. This is because the kidneys play a crucial role in maintaining calcium and phosphorus levels in the body, which are vital for bone health. When the kidneys are not functioning properly, they cannot effectively regulate these minerals, leading to bone disorders such as renal osteodystrophy and osteoporosis.

Treatment for bone disease in CKD patients can include phosphate binders, active vitamin D compounds, and calcimimetics. Lifestyle changes, such as regular exercise, maintaining a balanced diet, and quitting smoking, can also help improve bone health. In severe cases, dialysis or a kidney transplant may be needed.

Kidney Transplants Follow Up

Post-transplant care is crucial to maintaining the health and function of the transplanted kidney. It involves a regime of medication to prevent organ rejection, regular check-ups and blood tests to monitor kidney function, and lifestyle modifications to promote overall health. 

Failing to adhere to the recommended post-transplant care can lead to complications, such as infection, organ rejection, and even loss of the transplanted kidney.

At Grand Forks Clinic, Dr. Khaled Rabadi works with large transplant centers like the University of Minnesota and the Mayo Clinic to provide follow-up care for transplant patients who live in the local area. 

We are committed to ensuring the long-term success of your kidney transplant. Our team of expert nephrologists and nurses provides comprehensive follow-up care and monitoring, including regular blood tests, medication management, dietary advice, and emotional support. 

We work closely with each patient to ensure they understand and adhere to their post-transplant care plan. 


Dialysis is a life-saving treatment used to replicate some of the kidney's functions in people with kidney failure. It helps remove waste, salt, and excess water from the body, maintain safe levels of certain chemicals in the blood, and control blood pressure.

There are two primary types of dialysis - Hemodialysis and Peritoneal dialysis. Hemodialysis involves filtering the blood through a machine outside the body, while Peritoneal dialysis uses the lining of the abdomen to filter the blood inside the body. 

The choice between the two depends on various factors, including the patient's health condition, lifestyle, and personal preference.

At Grand Forks Clinic, we support both in-clinic and home-based dialysis options. Our dedicated team of healthcare professionals provides comprehensive care during the dialysis process, including monitoring vital signs, managing any side effects, and offering emotional support. 

We also provide training and support for patients opting for home-based dialysis.

Grand Fork Clinics owns and operates Aurora Dialysis in Grand Forks, which provides in-center hemodialysis services. Grand Forks Clinic also owns and operates the Kidney Institute of North Dakota (KIND) in Grand Forks. KIND provides mainly peritoneal dialysis at home. 

Acute Kidney Injury (AKI)

Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is a sudden episode of kidney failure or kidney damage that happens within a few hours or a few days. AKI causes a build-up of waste products in your blood and makes it hard for your kidneys to keep the right balance of fluids in your body.

Symptoms of AKI can include decreased urine output, fluid retention, shortness of breath, fatigue, and confusion. It can be caused by a variety of conditions, including low blood flow to the kidneys, direct damage to the kidneys, or blockage of the urinary tract.

Treatment for AKI typically involves treating the underlying cause and supporting kidney function with treatments like dialysis if necessary. 

Grand Forks Clinic provides comprehensive treatment and follow-up care for patients with AKI, including monitoring kidney function, managing symptoms, and preventing further kidney damage.


Glomerulonephritis is a disease that injures the part of the kidney that filters blood (called glomeruli). If not treated promptly, this can lead to kidney damage and even kidney failure.

Symptoms of Glomerulonephritis can include pink or cola-colored urine, foamy urine, high blood pressure, fluid retention, and fatigue. It can be caused by infections, immune diseases, or conditions that cause inflammation.

Treatment for Glomerulonephritis typically involves medications to control high blood pressure and reduce inflammation. In severe cases, plasmapheresis (a procedure to remove harmful proteins from the blood) may be required. 

Grand Forks Clinic offers individualized treatment plans and follow-up care to monitor kidney function and prevent further damage.

Nephrotic Syndrome

Nephrotic Syndrome is a kidney disorder that causes the body to excrete too much protein in the urine. This happens when there's damage to the clusters of small blood vessels in your kidneys that filter waste and excess water from your blood. 

It's often a symptom of a variety of underlying diseases, including kidney disease caused by diabetes, and can increase the risk of other health problems.

Symptoms of Nephrotic Syndrome include severe swelling (edema), particularly around the eyes and in the ankles and feet, foamy urine due to excess protein, fatigue, and weight gain from excess fluid retention. 

The exact cause can vary but is often linked to any condition that damages your kidneys, such as diabetes, lupus, and certain infections.

Treatment for Nephrotic Syndrome focuses on identifying the underlying cause, if possible, and relieving the symptoms. Medications may be prescribed to control the syndrome's symptoms and the specific disease affecting the kidneys. 

Blood pressure medications and diuretics can also help control symptoms and prevent further kidney damage. 

At Grand Forks Clinic, we offer a comprehensive follow-up care plan for patients with Nephrotic Syndrome. This includes regular check-ups to monitor kidney function, lifestyle advice to manage symptoms, and ongoing support from our dedicated healthcare team.

Kidney Disease Treatment at Grand Forks Clinic

Grand Forks Clinic is dedicated to providing comprehensive and personalized care for all our patients. Our team of experienced nephrologists and healthcare professionals work collaboratively to manage and treat a range of kidney disorders. 

We ensure that every patient receives the best possible care and support throughout their treatment journey.

Early detection and treatment of kidney disorders can greatly improve our patient's prognosis and quality of life. 

Schedule your routine check-up by requesting an appointment online or by calling us at (701) 775-5800 today and take a proactive step towards a healthier future. 

Grand Forks Clinic
5750 S Washington St
Grand Forks, ND 58201

Working Hours
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